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Current RMA Instruments
|Reasonable Hypothesis SOP||94 of 2014|
|Balance of Probabilities SOP||95 of 2014|
Changes from previous Instruments
- ICD-9-CM Codes: 100, 100.0, 100.8, 100.81, 100.89, 100.9
- ICD-10-AM Codes: A27
This is a clinical illness caused by infection with spirochaetes (a type of bacteria) of the genus Leptospira. There are at least 10 pathogenic species in the genus. Leptospirosis is mostly a disease of the tropics. It results from contact with host animals or contaminated environmental sources. The illness is typically flu-like, mild and self-limiting. More severe and potentially fatal cases may occur, with involvement of the liver, kidney, nerves and muscles, severe pulmonary manifestations and vasculitis.
Confirming the diagnosis
This diagnosis is usually made on a combination of clinical grounds and serology. Molecular tests (PCR and LAMP) are becoming increasingly available. The causative organism may also be cultured (grown) from blood and urine.
The relevant medical specialist is an infectious disease physician.
Additional diagnoses covered by SOP
Weil’s disease / syndrome
Other labels that may be covered by SOP (more information required)
- Cane-cutter fever, canicola fever, mud fever, nanukayami fever, rice-field fever, swamp fever, swineherd's disease, waterborne fever
Conditions excluded from SOP
- Asymptomatic leptospiral infection
The usual presentation is with an abrupt onset of fever, rigors, myalgia and headache, an average of 10 days after exposure to the organism.
Many cases resolve without specific treatment. More severe cases may require hospitalisation and intravenous antibiotics. i