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Horseshoe Kidney P004

Last amended 
18 February 2021
Current RMA Instruments
Reasonable Hypothesis SOP
31 of 2015
Balance of Probabilities SOP
32 of 2015
Changes from previous Instruments

SOP Bulletin 179

ICD Coding
  • ICD-9-CM Codes: 753.3
  • ICD-10-AM Codes: Q63.11
Brief description

This is a congenital malformation with the kidneys fused across the midline, usually at the lower poles, by a bridge of functioning or non-functioning tissue.

Confirming the diagnosis

Diagnosis is usually made coincidentally following imaging (e.g. routine antenatal ultrasound) performed for another reason.

The relevant medical specialist is a urologist.

Additional diagnoses covered by SOP
  • Nil
Conditions excluded from SOP
  • Renal pathology from other causes.
Clinical onset

The condition is asymptomatic in most people.  A significant number of patients with horseshoe kidney will have other urological abnormalities, commonly leading to urinary obstruction.  These patients may present with pain or hematuria and have evidence of hydronephosis (swelling of kidney due to a build up of urine from a blockage/obstruction), kidney stones or urinary infection.  Such manifestations typically present during childhood.

Clinical worsening

The only SOP factor is for inability to obtain appropriate clinical management.  The horseshoe abnormality itself will not become worse.  Progression of urological problems (obstruction, infection etc.) will be related to the associated abnormalities rather than the horseshoe kidney.