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Attachment 3. World War 2 Diets

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Diets Based on Service Ration Scales and Civilian Survey During World War 2

Sample diets of individual foods and quantities consumed were prepared from each of the service rations to provide a basis for the analysis of the rations.

Civilian diet

The diet for civilians was based on the estimated adult intake of food per day from the national survey "The food consumption and dietary levels in 2730 Australian family households in 1944".

* amount, as purchased, in ounces (oz.)

Foods Amounts*
Civilian Diet - Mean Daily Consumption
Bread, white 9.26
Bread, other 1.37
Biscuits, cakes, buns, scones 1.87
Flour 1.58
Oatmeal 0.39
Wheatmeal 0.05
Cornflakes 0.34
Weet-bix 0.34
Cornflour 0.20
Barley, pearl 0.12
Rice 0.15
Beef 3.43
Beef - sausages 0.74
Pork 0.17
Pork - sausages 0.04
Bacon, ham 0.39
Mutton, lamb 3.58
Liver, lambs' fry 0.14
Poultry 1.01
Rabbit 0.52
Tinned meat 0.07
Fish, fresh 0.48
Shellfish (eg lobster, oyster) 0.03
Margarine 0.19
Lard 0.04
Fat other (eg suet, dripping, oils) 0.12
Milk, fresh 7.94
Milk, condensed, sweetened 2.04
Milk, dried, whole 0.55
Milk, dried, skim 0.09
Butter 1.60
Cream 0.04
Ice cream 0.05
Cheese 0.37
Eggs 1.78
Potatoes, old 5.79
Potatoes, new 1.17
Vegetables, root (no potato, carrot) 1.73
Vegetable, brassica 0.98
Peas, beans 0.97
Vegetables, other (eg onion, celery) 3.47
Vegetables, green leafy (eg spinach) 0.81
Lettuce, endive 0.24
Carrots 0.67
Tomatoes, fresh 1.76
Dried peas, beans, lentils 0.12
Fruit, bottled, canned, stewed 0.59
Jam, marmalade 1.06
Fruit, citrus, fresh 2.29
Fruit, other, fresh (eg apple, pear) 5.84
Fruit, dried, vine 0.32
Sugar, honey, syrup, treacle, glucose 3.93
Coffee 0.01
Tea (weighed as leaves) 0.40
Cocoa drinks (eg Horlicks, Ovaltine) 0.02
Soup, tinned, condensed 0.01
Wine 0.01
Home-made meat stew 0.10
Home-made meat pie 0.10
Home-made puddings 0.09
Beer 2.97

Ration scale for Eastern and Northern Command

The sample diet used to estimate the nutrient content of the ration scale for servicemen in the Eastern and Northern Command is based on a standard list of commodities to provision weekly menus for 100 servicemen.

Note: The following table includes the official suggestions for expenditure of the cash allowance of 1 1/2 pence daily.

* amount, as purchased, in ounces (oz.)

Foods Amounts*
Mean Daily Consumption - Defence Forces serving in Eastern and Northern Command areas
Bread, white 5.21
Bread, brown 5.21
Biscuits 0.96
Flour, white, plain 1.92
Oatmeal 0.55
Crispies 0.37
Rice, white 0.32
Sago 0.09
Tapioca 0.14
Beef 7.98
Kidney, ox 0.07
Mutton 6.60
Sausages 1.65
Bacon 0.32
Preserved meat 0.82
Preserved pilchards 1.54
Salmon 0.41
Milk, condensed 0.96
Milk, dried 0.80
Ice cream 1.07
Butter 1.76
Cheese 0.80
Eggs, fresh 0.27
Potatoes 10.4
Onions 1.37
Beetroot 1.10
Cabbage 1.60
Carrots 2.54
Cucumber 0.41
Lettuce 1.51
Marrow 0.96
Parsnips 0.14
Peas green 0.91
Pumpkin 0.80
Spinach 1.10
Tomatoes 0.82
Radish 0.55
Currants 0.09
Prunes 0.55
Sultanas 0.18
Fruit, fresh 5.0
Jam 1.68
Syrup, golden 0.18
Sugar 3.86
Honey 0.82
Coffee 0.48
Tea 0.48
Tomato sauce 0.41
Baking powder 0.06
Curry powder 0.01
Custard powder 0.09
Cornflour 0.13
Salt 0.48
Pepper 0.03

Ration Scale A

The food items and quantities in Ration Scale A are the same as in the Ration Scale for the Eastern and Northern Command. Also the archival documentation available indicates that this ration scale was only implemented from 1 April 1942 to 15 August 1942. Therefore, it was decided that the nutrient values to be calculated for the Eastern and Northern Command ration scale also be applied to Ration Scale A.

Ration Scale B for tropical Australia

The sample diet used to estimate the nutrient content of Ration Scale B for Defence Forces in temperate Australia, was mainly based on the food selection listed in the Davidson report, to standardise the diet selections between that report and the present analysis. The quantities in the diet were amended as necessary to conform with the appropriate ration scale.

Note: The following table includes the official suggestions for expenditure of the cash allowance of 1 1/2 pence daily.

* amount, as purchased, in ounces (oz.)

Foods Amounts*
Mean Daily Consumption - Defence Forces in tropical Australia
Bread, white 7.00
Bread, brown 7.00
Flour 1.98
Oatmeal 0.02
Rice, white 0.25
Rice, brown 0.25
Beef 11.14
Bacon, tinned 1.50
Mutton, lamb 2.57
Preserved meat 1.10
Fish, fresh 0.04
Eggs, fresh 0.25
Eggs, dehydrated
[1 oz eggs, dehydrated = 3 eggs (eg 50g or 1.76oz each]
0.10
Milk, condensed, unsweetened 3.00
Butter 1.75
cheese 0.57
Ice cream 1.10
Potatoes, old 10.00
Vegetables, root (no carrot, potato) 1.32
Vegetables, brassica 1.34
Peas, beans 0.07
Vegetables, other (eg onion, celery) 2.00
Vegetables, green, leafy (eg spinach) 1.32
Lettuce, endive 0.55
Carrots 2.52
Blue boiler peas, dehydrated, germinated 1.00
Tomatoes, fresh 4.08
Tomatoes, fresh, stewed 0.57
Tomato puree 0.03
Fruit, bottled, tinned, stewed 4.00
Jam, marmalade 2.00
Fruit, citrus, fresh 2.60
Fruit, other, fresh (eg apple, pear) 2.60
Fruit, dried, vine 1.00
Fruit juice 3.00
Sugar, honey, syrup, treacle, glucose 4.20
Coffee (as instant) 0.20
Tea (weighed as leaves) 0.44
Soup, vegetable 0.14
Beer 1.09
Curry powder 0.02
Mustard 0.01
Pepper 0.01
Salt 0.50
Tomato sauce 0.43
Baking powder 0.04

Ration Scale C for temperate Australia

The sample diet used to estimate the nutrient content of Ration Scale C for Defence Forces in temperate Australia, was mainly based on the food selection listed in the Davidson report, to standardise the diet selections between that report and the present analysis. The quantities in the diet were amended as necessary to conform with the appropriate ration scale.

Note: The following table includes the official suggestions for expenditure of the cash allowance of 1 1/2 pence daily.

* amount, as purchased, in ounces (oz.)

Foods Amounts*
Mean Daily Consumption - Defence Forces in temperate Australia
Bread, white 6.00
Bread, brown 6.00
Flour 1.63
Oatmeal 0.01
Spaghetti 0.18
Macaroni 0.18
Rice, white 0.25
Rice, brown 0.25
Beef 3.60
Suasages, tinned 2.00
Bacon, tinned 0.86
Mutton, lamb 7.10
Preserved meat 1.05
Fish, tinned 0.10
Eggs, fresh 0.25

Eggs, dehydrated
[1oz. eggs, dehydrated = 3 eggs, fresh (1.76oz ea)]

0.10

Margarine 0.38
Milk, conc, u/s 2.50
Butter 1.37
Cheese 0.28
Ice cream 1.10
Potatoes, old 10.00
Vegetables, root (no carrot, potato) 1.32
Vegetables, brassica 1.34
Peas, beans 0.07
Vegetables, other (eg onions, celery) 2.00
Vegetables, green, leafy (eg spinach) 1.32
Lettuce, endive 0.55
Carrots 2.52
Blue boiler peas, dehydrated, germinated 1.00
Tomatoes, fresh 4.08
Tomatoes, fresh, stewed 0.57
Tomato puree 0.03
Fruit, bottles, tinned, stewed 2.00
Jam, marmalade 2.00
Fruit, citrus, fresh 2.60
Fruit, other, fresh (eg apple, pear) 2.60
Fruit, dried, vine 0.25
Fruit, dried, apricot 0.25
Sugar, honey, syrup, treacle, glucose 3.2
Coffee, instant 0.20
Tea (weighted as leaves) 0.25
Soup, vegetable 0.14
Beer 1.09
Curry powder 0.02
Mustard 0.01
Pepper 0.01
Salt 0.50
Tomato sauce 0.43
Baking powder 0.04

AIF Ration Scale for the Middle East

The sample diet used to estimate the nutrient content of the AIF Ration Scale for the Middle East is based on the foods and quantities listed in that scale, with use of food equivalents. The diet also includes foods for the expenditure of the cash allowance of 1 1/2 pence daily. These foods are consistent with the official suggestions for expenditure of the cash allowance, except the 3/7 serving of ice cream has been replaced by a piece of fresh fruit as 1/2 serving of an orange and 1/2 serving of dates.

* amount, as purchased, in ounces (oz.)

Mean Daily Consumption - AIF Forces in the Middle East
Foods Amount*
Bread 16.00
Flour 1.00
Rice 0.50
Oatmeal 0.05
Beef 4.67
Mutton 4.67
Preserved meat 3.67
Bacon, tinned 1.00
Sausages, tinned 2.00
Meat loaf 0.57
Salmon, tinned 0.86
Herrings, tinned 0.43
Pilchards, tinned 0.43
Milk, condensed, u/s 2.50
Butter 2.00
Cheese 1.14
Potatoes, fresh 12.00
Onions, fresh 3.00
Vegetables, root (no potato, carrot) 1.50
Peas, beans 1.50
Vegetables, other (eg celery) 1.50
Carrots 3.00
Tomatoes, fresh 2.50
Vegetables, tinned (eg beetroot, peas) 6.00
Fruits, dried 0.57
Fruit, tinned 2.00
Fresh fruit 2.00
Oranges 4.00
Dates, fresh 2.00
Fruit juice 3.00
Jam, marmalade 2.00
Sugar 4.20
Tea 0.75
Salt 0.50
Pepper 0.01
Mustard/curry powder 0.01
Pickles 0.10
Marmite 0.11
Tomato sauce 0.07
Custard powder 0.05

Pacific Ration Scale for the Pacific Islands and New Guinea

The sample diet used to estimate the nutrient content of the Pacific Ration Scale for the Pacific Islands and New Guinea on the foods and quantities listed in that scale, with use of food equivalents. The choice of individual foods is mainly based on the results of the Nutrition Surveys of the Ninth Division (December 1943) and the Seventh Division (January 1944) undertaken in the Divisional Headquarters, and the Field Ambulance and other field units of the Divisions, when operational in New Guinea.

* amount, as purchased, in ounces (oz.)

Foods Amounts*
Mean Daily Consumption - Defence Forces in New Guinea and Pacific Islands
Bread 9
Biscuits, service 2.33
Flour 2.00
Rice 0.50
Wheatmeal 1.00
Beef 3.57
Mutton 3.57
Preserved meat 3.43
Bacon, tinned 0.86
Meat and vegetables 2.25
Salmon, tinned 0.43
Herrings, tinned 0.43
Eggs, dehydrated 0.21
Milk, conc, u/s 2.50
Butter 1.75
Cheese 0.86
Lard 0.50
Potatoes, fresh 4.00
Potatoes, dehydrated 1.00
Onions, dehydrated 0.50
Blue peas, dried 0.29
Baked beans, tinned 1.00
Carrots, tinned 1.67
Cabbage, tinned 1.67
Tomato, tinned 1.67
Peas/beans, quick-freeze 0.75
Parsnip, swedes, sweet potato 2.00
Beetroot, asparagus, tinned 0.84
Tomato puree 0.43
Fresh fruit 4.00
Fruit juice 2.00
Fruit, dried 1.00
Jam/marmalade 2.00
Fruit cake 0.43
Sugar 3.25
Coffee 0.20
Tea 0.31
Salt 0.50
Pepper 0.01
Tomato sauce 0.25
Curry powder 0.02
Custard powder 0.12

Diet for Pacific Ration Scale for the Defence Forces in New Guinea and the Pacific Islands - Amended 1 February 1944

The quantities for a number of the ration foods in the Pacific Ration Scale were amended from 1 February 1944.

The following changes were made:

  • Bacon, tinned from 6/7oz to 1 2/3oz
  • Cheese decreased from 6/7oz to 4/7oz
  • Milk, conc, u/s increased from 2 1/2oz to 4oz
  • Lard increased from 1/2oz to 1oz
  • Fruit, dried decreased from 2oz to 1oz
  • Fruit juice increased from 2oz to 3oz
  • Bread increased from 12oz to 14oz
  • Sugar increased from 3 1/4oz to 4oz.

Note: A recalculation will be made of the nutrient composition of the Pacific Ration Scale current 4/4/43 to 31/1/44 to allow for these changes.